The advent of the internet gives rise to the proliferation of information. At first glance, this is a great medium of our time. The unfortunate truth is that there is a less-than-desirable side to the internet. One of the main achievements of the internet is the ability of everyone to publish their own ideas or collections of others ideas on websites. Sometimes, these websites do not portray the truth of the matter. Using standards set forth by Shermer (2002), I will examine two websites, which make extraordinary claims, for clues to the validity of their claims, or lack thereof. Though, the websites mentioned herein were specifically chosen as pseudoscientific, I will search for the modicum of truth that is sure to be inherent in all claims of this nature.
Paul Ingraham, a registered massage therapist in Vancouver, Canada, claims that stretching prior to exercise is all but useless (n.d.). For $14.95, he will show you why. In his web-based article, formatted to appear as a peer-reviewed and published manuscript, Ingraham starts by citing an article in the same commercial magazine that pays him for submissions. Below this are two quotes from reader feedback. This is hardly scientific reference. The article moves on to cover the subject material in the authors words while continuing to cite “plentiful research” (para. 6), of which many conclude limited findings, and “evidence” (para. 7), which he immediately qualifies as “at least a really convincing physiological rationale” (para. 7).
Shermer’s (2002) fallacies can be used to identify this website as less credible than the author intends. Shermer’s first fallacy, “theory influences observation” (p. 46) is an obvious consideration. Ingraham is a massage therapist and his view is certainly biased by his occupation. A quick glance at the provided reference list will show a collection of literature selected to support Ingraham’s (n.d.) claim. Shermer’s fourth fallacy, “anecdotes do not make a science” (p. 48), can be applied as Ingraham uses anecdotes throughout his article to support his claim. Finally, the whole format of Ingraham’s self-published article, suggesting that his work was peer-reviewed and published in an academic journal, brings to light Shermer’s fifth fallacy, “scientific language does not make a science” (p. 49). With three of Shermer’s 25 fallacies shown to be pertinent considerations, Ingraham must be viewed with skepticism at the very least.
A website published by the Discovery Institute, Center for Science and Culture (n.d.), makes the claim that the year 2012 marks the end of the world, at least as we know it. This website uses strong language and bold statements throughout. This would certainly be an application of Shermer’s (2002) sixth fallacy, “bold statements do not make claims true” (p. 49). Additionally, this website uses references to religions and philosophies, tying them with coincidental occurrences throughout time as a means of justification for the claim. This alone creates skepticism using almost all of Shermer’s fallacies of thought.
Can stretching be detrimental to the athlete? Might there be better ways to prepare for strenuous activities? Certainly. It is unfortunate that this author does not take the time to do appropriate research. Further, it could be stated that his representation of the facts is fraudulent. Although he may have some standing in his claim, he does a disservice to himself by the methods he employs to make a convincing argument (Ingraham, n.d.).
The same cannot be said for the 2012 prophecies (Discovery Institute, Center for Science and Culture, n.d.). These prophecies lack proof until the prophecies are fulfilled. There are just no scientific means available to observe and study this prophecy as it has yet to occur, and though science may be able to explain whatever catastrophe might happen that day, the prophecy itself is beyond the realm of science.
Discovery Institute, Center for Science and Culture. (n.d.). Explaining the science of Intelligent Design. Retrieved from http://www.intelligentdesign.org/
Kehne, J. (2006). December 21 2012, The official Website for 122112 Information. Retrieved October 10, 2009, from http://www.december212012.com/
Shermer, M. (2002). Why people believe weird things. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
Ingraham, P. (n.d.). Stretching for trigger points. Retrieved from http://saveyourself.ca/articles/stretching-for-tps.php