Tag Archives: pharmacology


Many times, throughout the history of science, pseudosciences have been found to have some underlying correlation. Further directed study turns what was one pseudoscience into real science. An example of this is aspirin.

The basic form of aspirin, salicin, “was used for centuries earlier [than 460 B.C.] in European folk medicine” (Gibson, n.d., para. 2) in the form of willow leaves and bark to treat pain and swelling. This practice continued over the centuries until:

“According to “From A Miracle Drug” written by Sophie Jourdier for the Royal Society of Chemistry: ‘It was not long before the active ingredient in willow bark was isolated; in 1828, Johann Buchner, professor of pharmacy at the University of Munich, isolated a tiny amount of bitter tasting yellow, needle-like crystals, which he called salicin.'” (“History of Aspirin”, n.d., para. 4)

For the next 75 years, proto-aspirin was developed into what is now commonly referred to as aspirin (acetylsalicilic acid), and though aspirin is commonly prescribed for all sorts of pain, there is no medical research done at this time to show that aspirin has any more impact other than reducing pain. Not until 1988 was there much research showing the benefits of aspirin to treat heart attack victims (Fuster, Dyken, Vokonas, & Hennekens, 1993; Mosca, 2008), though it was commonly prescribed for reducing the associated pain. It is now generally understood in the medical community that aspirin serves a vital purpose in limiting prostiglandin production, thereby limiting the effect of clotting in the coronary arteries (Fuster et al., 1993). Essentially, aspirin helps to stop a heart attack from getting worse.

Aspirin has undergone a transformation from the pseudoscience of folk medicine to a valued addition in the general pharmacopeia for the treatment of heart attacks. Consider the difference between aspirin for heart health and the claims of acai berry for weight loss. There has been recent discussion about the health effects of acai berry which has prompted researchers to analyze the nutritional composition of the berry (Schauss et al., 2006). Though the discussion has nothing related to weight loss, some have made the claim that acai is useful for this purpose and cite research that does not further this claim. This is detrimental to the furtherance of acai as a significant source of nutrition and possible medicinal role for improving age-related cognition deficits (Willis, Shukitt-Hale, Joseph, 2009).


Fuster, V., Dyken, M. L., Vokonas, P. S., & Hennekens, C. (1993). Aspirin as a therapeutic agent in cardiovascular disease. Special Writing Group. Circulation, 87, 659-675.

Gibson, A. C. (n.d.). Oh willow, don’t weep. Economic Botany. Retrieved from http://www.botgard.ucla.edu/html/botanytextbooks/economicbotany/index.html

Mosca, L. (2008). Aspirin chemoprevention: One size does not fit all. Circulation, 117, 2844-2846.

History of Aspirin. (n.d.). About.Com: Inventors. Retrieved from http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blaspirin.htm

Schauss, A. G., Wu, X., Prior, R. L., Ou, B., Patel, D., Huang, D., & Kababick, J. P. (2006). Phytochemical and nutrient composition of the freeze-dried Amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae Mart. (acai). J. Agric. Food Chem., 54, 8598−8603

Willis, L. M., Shukitt-Hale, B., Joseph, J. A. (2009). Recent advances in berry supplementation and age-related cognitive decline. [Special commentary][Abstract]. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care, 12(1), 91-94. Abstract retrieved from http://www.currentopinion.com/pt/re/co/abstract.00075197-200901000-00016.htm