Communications: Multicultural Considerations

Episcopalians have recently decided to approve and bless this type of marriage within the church (Dawson, 2012). In light of the recent debate over same-sex marriage, which has implications for societal values, health care, economics, public policy, business, and religion, approaching the subject requires care and specific messaging to ensure factual representation of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) community with limited personal bias. A biased or overly-stereotypical argument of debate or discussion point is easily nullified and serves only to discredit the messenger. According to James (2011) and Robison (2002), between 4 and 10% (14.4 – 36-million) of all Americans fall within the LGBT community. Additionally, as religion appears to be the countering force in this argument, the same care must be used for this group, also.

If I were to enter the debate, I would hope to provide a solution to the problem that would be equitable to all parties involved. If not realistic, it would, at least, be a positive addition to the debate; however, I feel that there is an equitable solution. The only was to reach this solution, though, is to maintain a factual position from which to analyze the problem. Hendrix and Hayes (2010) focuses on message construction, and though it is an important aspect of communications, public debate usually requires research more focused to attain understanding of the intricacies of the debate and the environment in which the debate is being held.

There are two aspects of marriage that need to be considered. First, marriage is largely a religious institution; therefore, the religious debate cannot be readily dismissed. The second aspect of marriage that needs consideration is legal definition of marriage and the licensing requirements of each state. Obvious to me, the federal government has no platform on which to stand as they are required to honor the states’ license of marriage. The rapid solution is to provide a state option to allow or disallow same-sex marriage. For this to occur, the states would have to change the marriage license to a license of partnership in household. The partnership in household designation would allow, for tax and legal purposes, the LGBT community as well as others, such as atheists, to enjoy the benefits of traditional marriage without encroaching on the purview of religion. This would leave each religious denomination the choice of presiding over a formal rite of wedding, which would officiate the marriage within the religion. The states and federal government should only honor the partnership in household designations or dissolutions when considering marriage for their purposes. Marriage is the only religious rite where government requires a fee, and they should not.

This solution provides historical precedent as well as satisfying the needs of the communities on each side of this debate, and it does so respectfully and without bias. Other arguments can still be made, such as the worthiness and value of society’s acceptance of same-sex marriage, but these arguments are less important than the official capacity in which each aspect of the argument (government and religion) are able to weigh in. Too many times, we as a society try to use institutions to force behavior when the chosen institution actually has little purview and impact on the behavior, such as the federal government in this case. This tactic only serves to inflame the debate and adds pressure to institutions to act.


Dawson, D. (2012, July 9). Episcopalians set to be first big U.S. church to bless gay marriage. Reuters. Retrieved from

James, S. D. (2011, April 8). Gay Americans make up 4 percent of population. ABC News. Retrieved from

Hendrix, J. A. & Hayes, D. C. (2010). Public relations cases (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Robison, J. (Ed.). (2002, October 8). What percentage of the population is gay? Gallup. Retrieved from

Integrated Marketing Communications Case Study

Integrated marketing communication provides a seamless and comprehensive delivery of information to consumers. Hendrix and Hayes (2010) discusses the prevalence of integrated marketing since the 1990s and its usefulness in complying with the perceptions of consumers. In this way, integrated marketing communication is consumer-centric and relationship driven. An award-winning case study of Pfizer Animal Health, MGH, and TagTeam Global by the Public Relations Society of America (2009) demonstrates the utility of integrated marketing concepts.


Pfizer developed a canine weightloss medication, Slentrol®, in 2007, and relied on the collaborative efforts of MGH and TagTeam Global to launch the marketing efforts in 2008. Slentrol® is the first-in-class drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat canine obesity. The comprehensive effort resulted opening conversations between veterinarians across the country and approximately 200,000 dog owners, increasing dog obesity awareness, and, ultimately, lead to a 42% gain in Slentrol® sales.


Hendrix and Hayes (2010) describe how a SWOT analysis would be extremely useful when preparing for an integrated marketing effort. They stress that leveraging strengths and acknowledging weaknesses honestly allows the firm the ability to maximize market-share while maintaining vigilance against external threats. According to the Public Relations Society of America (2009), the primary research, conducted primarily by Pfizer, helped to define the market. MGH and TagTeam Global furthered this research with anecdotal evidence provided by friends, family, and colleagues and surveys directed to veterinarians, which helped to define the degree of understanding that most people have of the health risks of obese dogs. MGH and TagTeam Global also performed secondary research to help to define the messaging in a way that would resonate with dog owners.


The objectives of integrated marketing communications is, by definition, comprehensive. In the case study, the objectives included increasing a focus on canine obesity, educate dog owners to the dangers and risks of canine obesity, motivate dog owners to seek treatment if their dogs were perceived to be obese, and to increase sales of Slentrol® (Public Relations Society of America, 2009). To meet these objectives, a public outreach event, the National Canine Weight Check, was designed to allow dog owners to visit a participating veterinarian during an entire month for a weight assessment free of charge (Public Relations Society of America, 2009).


The Public Relations Society of America (2009) case study demonstrates a varied use of media and consumer word-of-mouth communication to raise awareness of canine obesity. MGH and TagTeam Global also created a website dedicated to provide education about canine obesity and recruited a number of veterinarians to participate in the outreach. These veterinarians were provided with advice on how to broach the topic as well as the necessary equipment to perform the free weight assessment. Again, they relied heavily on the previous research in order to communicate most effectively with dog owners based on the vernacular present on canine websites and discussion boards. This was a very strategic use of available communication tools.


The National Canine Weight Check is lauded as attracting over 200,000 dog owners to participating veterinarians to discuss the risks and options concerning their overweight dogs, Pfizer enjoyed a 42% increase in sales of Slentrol®, and Pfizer realized a great opportunity for continued marketing to almost 1,500 consumers through social network connections (Public Relations Society of America, 2009). Many other goals and objectives were met, and Pfizer, MGH, and TagTeam Global consider the National Canine Weight Check a large success.


Integrated marketing communications is a comprehensive combination of many advertising, marketing, sales, and public relations tactics to provide unification in the messaging and more effectively leverages the strengths of the organization. Integrated marketing relies on two-way communication and serves to establish long-lasting relationships between the organization and consumers. Integrated marketing can be very useful in a myriad of situations, and though it requires great attention to detail and thorough research to accomplish effectively, the rewards can be immense and lasting when done right.

Pfizer, MGH, and TagTeam Global would not, in my opinion, have benefited from such success had they not implemented this comprehensive approach. The research alone allowed the effort to succeed by uncovering more ways to attain credibility with the consumers as well as veterinarians (Public Relations Society of America, 2000). Further, the biggest benefit to integrated marketing that Pfizer now enjoys is the long-term loyalty and commitment found in a significant share of the market. This could not be attained, according to Hendrix and Hayes (2010), with other, more modest, forms of communication and marketing.


Hendrix, J. A. & Hayes, D. C. (2010). Public relations cases (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Public Relations Society of America. (2009). National canine weight check (Product #6BW-0916A11). Retrieved from

ROPE Process in Consumer Relations

Public relations is a very useful tool for an organization making its case in the public forum, especially when confronting another organization with conflicting values. In this case, I will explore the opportunity for using public relations concepts in defending a historical society against the desire of a group of property developers who wish to build on an historic site. Hendrix and Hayes (2010) demonstrates leveraging reputation and crafted messaging to inform the public of the controversy in a manner that helps to garner public support for the organization’s position using the R.O.P.E. (research, objectives, programming, and evaluation) process.


The first step in using public relations, according to Hendrix and Hayes (2010) is researching the problem and the audience. The results will allow tailoring the later message to effectively impact the audience in the desired manner. Tailoring the message specifically to the audience is very effective in communications. Research is especially important in separating those who are active in community politics from those who prefer a more laissez-faire approach to politics.

In this particular case, it is important to understand the import that the members of the community put on history, their political ideologies, and the economic impact of the developers’ proposed plan. Depending on how each of these relate to the current state of the community, a message could be crafted to emphasize the points most important to the community as well as educate the public to the importance of the issue.


Hendrix and Hayes (2010) state that both impact and output objectives are important when communicating with consumers. Impact objectives refer to the attitudes and behaviors that need to be influenced while output objectives refer to the overall measurable goals of the public relations effort. While the latter can be simply stated as to garner support to preserve the historic nature of the site, the former requires more precision.

Using the broad output objective statement above, further output objectives can be developed to meet the overarching goal. For example, a more specific output objective could be to mail informational flyers to each household within five miles of the historically significant site. Another example would be to meet with three previously identified community leaders each day to emphasize the importance of preserving the site versus developing it.

In this particular case, the impact objectives will rely heavily on the research performed to increase the community’s knowledge about the importance of historical preservation and to influence their perceptions of the usefulness of historical preservation contrasted with the negative impact of the development of the site. Further, the community needs to be educated about how the historical preservation society has performed in past years with a focus on those efforts that typical have the support of the public already.


As stated above, the programming of the message is very important and should be steered by the research. In the case of an historical preservation society attempting to protect an historic site from development, there will be media coverage. It is important to control the media as much as possible, and this can be accomplished by issuing press releases (see Appendix), holding public events covered by the media designed to educate the public about the controversy, and holding press conferences and interviews to give the media more access to the desired message over the competing message of the developers. The programming also needs to enhance and leverage the credibility of the historical society for the best results (Hendrix & Hayes, 2010).

Message programming can also be used in monitoring media coverage and augmenting the approach based on the amount and content of coverage. If one aspect of the message is clearly represented but another aspect is failing to connect with the public, emphasis can be placed on the lacking aspect of the message in future communications.


The reputation and credibility of the historical preservation society is very important in the continued efforts to garner support for preserving the site from the proposed development; therefore, constant evaluation of the society’s reputation within the community is paramount. Beyond the reputation, the effectiveness of each message component should be evaluated to ensure consistency with the objectives. This could be accomplished by using further research and analyzing the amount of favorable attention the society is getting in regards to this particular controversy and in general.

Understanding the effectiveness of the communication effort allows a decision to made to either stay on course or alter the messaging to use more effective measures and tactics.


Though this controversy is hypothetical, political discussions and debates frequently call into the question to utility and desire of maintaining historical sites versus the opportunity to develop these sites to improve economic output or improve overall living conditions within the community. For those that feel an importance in preserving history when confronted with political controversy, the communication efforts described here can be used to effectively plead the case in the public forum, arguably the most important forum in controversies such as these.


Hendrix, J. A. & Hayes, D. C. (2010). Public relations cases (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.


Example press release.

Contact: Michael Schadone FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

Telephone: (555) 555-5555

Cell: (555) 555-5556



Please Help Preserve the Johnson Mills

The Society of Historical Preservation has recently learned that the Johnson Mills site, located at 55 Johnson Rd. in Township, Connecticut, is in danger of being destroyed. This site, an historically significant building where our first governor, John Johnson, founded the lumber mill that propelled our state into prosperity for over 300 years, is important to the economic and political history of the state as well as the nation.

On May 5, 2012, Property Developers, Inc., submitted a proposal to the Township zoning board to develop the Johnson Mills historical site as condominiums and a strip mall. We believe that, although the community of Township is very supportive of preserving the history of the region, this proposal will be approved unless the members of the community attend the next zoning board hearing on July 25, 2012, at 123 Government Ln., to express their concern over the needless destruction of this important site.

Further, Township is experiencing the same economic conditions as the rest of the country and home ownership is at an all-time low for the region. In addition to the historic importance of Johnson Mills, it seems that the creation of a condominium complex is contrary to the needs of the community.

We at the Society of Historical Preservation anticipate that the people of Township and others within the state would be dismayed to hear of the plans of Property Developers, Inc., to develop the Johnson Mills site. It is important for us to give the community the opportunity to oppose this proposal by calling the Township town hall at (555) 555-0001 and attend the upcoming hearings to voice their concerns.

# # #

If you would like more information on this topic, or to schedule an interview with Michael Schadone, please call Steve Smith at (555) 555-5557 or email Steve at

Penn State: Analysis of Crisis Communications

On November 5, 2011, Jerry Sandusky, former Pennsylvania State University assistant football coach, was arrested on a number of counts of sexual assault on a minor. The arrest stems from incidents relating to The Second Mile charity, founded by Sandusky, and its association with Pennsylvania State University over the course of 15 years (Garcia, 2011; “Sandusky,” 2011). Two days later, the Pennsylvania State University athletic director, Tim Curley, and senior vice president for finance and business, Gary Schultz, surrendered to police to answer charges for failing to notify authorities for suspicions of sexual abuse of a minor (“Officials,” 2011; “Sandusky,” 2011). In two more days, Joe Paterno, head coach of the Pennsylvania State University football program, resigned over the controversy surrounding the university and its football program (Garcia, 2011; “Sandusky,” 2011). Within days of the arrests (and, before all the facts are known), the university was being severely criticized in the media (Zinser, 2011). This public relations nightmare is an example of how leveraging a crisis communication plan is important in communicating with the public.

Trivitt and Yann (2011) present this case as a reminder that crisis managers cannot fix every problem: “we think it’s important that, as a profession, we don’t overreach and try to uphold our work as the savior for every societal tragedy and crisis. Doing so makes us look opportunistic and foolish considering the gravity of the situation” (para. 13). In the case of Pennsylvania State University, there were a number of glaring failures to report the assaults to the authorities. Still, Sandusky was allowed to have unsupervised interaction with these adolescent boys until an investigation was launched in 2009 after one of the victims notified the authorities (“Sandusky,” 2011). Pennsylvania State University authorities should have reported the accusations to the proper authorities and released a statement to the media as soon as they were made aware, saving the administration from this crisis (Sudhaman & Holmes, 2012). The perception, however, is that there was a cover-up of moral corruption. There were a number of moral requirements that university representatives failed to acknowledge over the past years, and the character and esteem of the school will suffer for it.

Immediately after the revelation of these transgressions, the Pennsylvania State University administration clambered to make the proper attempts towards repairing the school’s suffering reputation, including donating $1.5-million of profits received from the renowned football program to sex crimes advocacy projects, discontinuing the school newspaper’s sex column, and providing a town hall- type venue where concerned students could present their questions and concerns directly to school officials (Sauer, 2011). Ultimately, these steps are proper; however, the only means of reclaiming and recapturing the admirable reputation that Pennsylvania State University once held is time and requires purging those administrators who appear sullied by this controversy. This does not, however, mean that Pennsylvania State University is languishing. According to Reuters (Shade, 2011), applications to attend Pennsylvania State University have increased in the last year, and the current school administration, as well as alumni, are uniting to restore the trust between the school and students.

Further, Singer (2011), a crisis communications and reputation management specialist, outlines the steps necessary for the school to truly enhance its brand. Singer highlights cleaning the slate by terminating any employees explicitly related to or having perpetuated the crisis, creating a team-centric leadership culture by restraining the political power of any one person within the school (especially the lead coach), and living the values that are proffered by the school (e.g. “Success With Honor”). If the crisis is handled appropriately from this point forward, the school’s reputation will be judged not the crisis itself.


Coombs (2012), Fearn-Banks, (2011), and Hendrix and Hayes (2010) all agree that crises are unexpected events that are difficult to anticipate; however, the communications focus should not be placed on specific problems that have a low probability of materializing but to have broad and general preparations in place to address unanticipated concerns as they arise.

Hendrix and Hayes (2010) provides an emergency checklist that organizations could adopt to better prepare to respond rapidly to a crisis. Analyzing the Pennsylvania State University response in retrospect by applying the concepts within this checklist will show how poorly prepared the administration was in responding to this crisis. What is glaring in the analysis is that the administration was on the defensive throughout the entire crisis. It seems that they were either unwilling or unable to get in front of the story. Hendrix and Hayes, as well as Coombs (2012) recommends utilizing a central resource as a clearinghouse to disseminate information to and from external publics. This communications center could also serve as an incident knowledge-base for those internal publics requiring more information. Further, preparation, again, is explicitly stated and is a requirement to quickly respond to media inquiries within the hour recommended. Although it is unclear if Pennsylvania State University incorporated a public information center, it was clearly not effective if it was, indeed, instituted.

Another issue that was contentious throughout the crisis and gave the appearance of a cover-up was the lack of full disclosure on the part of the university. It is understandable that the administration might have been caught off guard; however, this is no excuse to appear defensive and largely silent.

The Pennsylvania State University administration later contracted with a public relations firm to restore the reputation of the university. This should have been done much earlier.


Coombs, W. T. (2012). Ongoing crisis communication: Planning managing, and responding (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Fearn-Banks, K. (2011). Crisis communications: a casebook approach (4th ed). New York, NY: Routledge.

Garcia, T. (2011, November 9). Paterno announces retirement, says Penn State has bigger issues to address. PRNewser. Retrieved from

Hendrix, J. A. & Hayes, D. C. (2010). Public relations cases (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Officials seeking alleged abuse victims. (2011, November 9). Retrieved from

Sandusky, Penn State case timeline. (2011, November 9). Retrieved from

Sauer, A. (2011, December 1). Penn State bogs down in PR crisis, but a turnaround already showing. brandchannel. Retrieved from 12/01/Penn-State-Bogs-Down-In-PR-Crisis-120111.aspx

Shade, M. (2011, December 1). Penn State officials say applications up despite scandal. Reuters. Retrieved from

Singer, J. (2011, December 7). The Penn State scandal: crisis as opportunity. The Business of College Sports. Retrieved from

Sudhaman, A. & Holmes, P. (2012, January 25). The top 10 crises Of 2011. The Holmes Report. Retrieved from

Trivitt, K. & Yann A. (2011, November 9). Public relations won’t fix Penn State’s crisis. PRSay. Retrieved from

Zinser, L. (2011, November 9). Memo to Penn State: Ignoring a scandal doesn’t make it go away. The New York Times. Retrieved from

EMS Research: Using t Tests

When considering the emergency medical services, there has been much discussion regarding the utility of advanced life support and its effectiveness within the emergency medical services (Stiell et al., 2005; Stiell et al., 2003; Stiell et al., 2002; Stiell et al., 1999). One of the most basic skills that paramedics use exclusively is intravenous cannulation and the subsequent delivery of isotonic intravenous fluid. Intravenous cannulation is one of the first advanced skills that paramedics utilize within the course of treatment as it allows to correct for shock, provides a means for administering parenteral medications, and provides a means for drawing blood for testing either in the field or upon arrival at the receiving emergency department. As the body’s stress increases when dehydration is present, it is imperative to correct dehydration during the course of treating most ailments; otherwise, the body’s own compensatory mechanisms can fail despite otherwise adequate treatment (Wakefield, Mentes, Holman, & Culp, 2008). Additionally, dehydration can mask some critical tests, such as other blood values and radiological findings (Hash, Stephens, Laurens, & Vogel, 2000).

Though the research is limited, it is also important to note that judicious use, or overuse, of intravenous fluids can be detrimental in some cases (Rotstein et al., 2008). In order to test the effectiveness of paramedic treatment of co-morbid dehydration, we can observe for fluid status before and after treatment as well as between those patients transported by paramedic ambulance as compared to patients who present to the emergency department by other means (e.g. basic life support ambulance, walk-in); however, it is first important to understand if those patients who present to the emergency department are, indeed, dehydrated.

In order to study if paramedics have an impact in treating co-morbid dehydration, there has to be an assumption that a) most people are not dehydrated and b) people who present to the emergency department (the dependent variable) are more dehydrated (independent variable) than most of the population. As we can never be sure of the hydration status of the entire population at any given time or the standard deviation of the entire population, we can use the normal mean blood urea nitrogen value of 10 mmol/L and assume a normal distribution (Hash et al., 2000).

H0:μ=10: Patients who present to the emergency department are not dehydrated (BUN = 10 mmol/L)
Ha:μ>10: Patients who present to the emergency department are dehydrated (BUN > 10 mmol/L)

Once the random sample of BUN values have been obtained, I can use the t-distribution to find the value of the t-test statistic:

t = (x̄ - μ) / (s / √n)

Next, I would compute the degrees of freedom (it is important to note that the sample size [n] must be greater than 30 as the standard deviation of the population is not known):

DOF = n - 1

As this test is one-tailed (specifically, right-tailed), and I am concerned with a 95% CI, I would compare the t-value with the t-table row indicated by the DOF. If the t-value is greater than the t-value corresponding with the DOF, then I will be able to reject the null hypothesis; otherwise, if the computed t-value is less than the table value, I will not be able to reject the null hypothesis.


Hash, R. B., Stephens, J. L., Laurens, M. B., & Vogel, R. L. (2000). The relationship between volume status, hydration, and radiographic findings in the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia. Journal of Family Practice, 49(9), 833-837.

Rotstein, C., Evans, G., Born, A., Grossman, R., Light, R. B., Magder, S., … & Zhanel, G. G. (2008). Clinical practice guidelines for hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology, 19(1), 19–53.

Stiell, I. G., Nesbitt, L., Pickett, W., Brisson, D., Banek, J., Field, B, … & Wells, G., for the OPALS Study Group. (2005). OPALS Major Trauma Study: impact of advanced life support on survival and morbidity. Academy of Emergency Medicine, 12(5), 7.

Stiell, I. G., Nesbitt, L., Wells, G. A., Beaudoin, T., Spaite, D. W., Brisson, D., … & Cousineau, D., for the OPALS Study Group. (2003). Multicenter controlled trial to evaluate the impact of ALS on out-of-hospital chest pain patients. Academy of Emergency Medicine, 10(5), 501.

Stiell, I. G., Wells, G. A., Spaite, D. W., Nichol, G., Nesbitt, L., De Maio, V. J., … & Cousineau, D., for the OPALS Study Group. (2002). Multicenter controlled clinical trial to evaluate the impact of advanced life support on out-of-hospital respiratory distress patients. Academy of Emergency Medicine, 9(5), 357.

Stiell, I. G., Wells, G. A., Spaite, D. W., Nichol, G., O’Brien, B., Munkley, D. P., … & Anderson, S., for the OPALS Study Group. (1999). The Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support (OPALS) Study Part II: Rationale and methodology for trauma and respiratory distress patients. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 34, 256-262.

Wakefield, B. J., Mentes, J., Holman, J. E., & Culp, K. (2008). Risk factors and outcomes associated with hospital admission for dehydration. Rehabilitation Nursing, 33(6), 233-241. doi:10.1002/j.2048-7940.2008.tb00234.x

Crisis Communications: Imperial Sugar Case Study

At approximately 7:15 pm, on February 7, 2008, a large explosion at the Imperial Sugar refinery rocked the area of Port Wentworth, Georgia, killing 14 people and injuring 36, and although, the incident was found to be the fault of Imperial Sugar, this discussion will focus on the crisis communications and public relations surrounding the event (Bauerlein, 2010; U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, 2009). According to a report from the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA; 2009), although John Sheptor was appointed Chief Executive Officer merely nine days earlier and did not enjoy the support of a crisis communications team, he was thrust into the spotlight having to deal with this particular crisis.

According to a local television station, the people of Savannah and Port Wentworth responded admirably at the first hint of trouble (“Sugar refinery explosion,” n.d.). This is more of a testament to the community than to Imperial Sugar; however, it promotes a sense of good-will and community trust that Imperial Sugar was able to leverage. Almost immediately, Sheptor, in conjunction with Imperial Sugar partner Edelman, was holding regular news conferences, disseminating press releases, and correcting the record. The only delay is seemingly the time required to work with first responders and investigators (“4 found dead,” 2008; PRSA, 2009; U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, 2009). According to the PRSA (2009), Sheptor and Edelman immediately instituted a program to communicate to “employees, stakeholders, investors, elected officials and the media, and to engage the public in helping the company support the Imperial Sugar employee family” (p. 1).

As the crisis wound down to the recovery phase, it is important to note, as Chapman (2008) chronicles, that all displaced employees were still being paid by Imperial Sugar. All employees that were able were used to help in the clean-up efforts and ultimately maintained their employment status with Imperial Sugar. Within a week of the incident, Sheptor reported that the company was looking to rebuild and, in just over two month’s time, the decision to rebuild was official (Securities and Exchange Commission, 2008).

Sheptor leveraged Edelman’s communication philosophies which allowed communications to be prioritized, correct, honest, and abundant. While also providing much needed information to employees and families of missing employees, especially, this mode of communication also allowed Edelman, and Imperial Sugar, to cultivate media relations that will benefit them in the future.


4 found dead in Ga. sugar refinery blast. (2008, February 8). Associated Press. Retrieved from

Bauerlein, V. (2010, July 8). Imperial Sugar to pay fines in deadly Georgia explosion case. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from

Chapman, D. (2008, April 13). Sugar refinery near Savannah determined to rebuild. Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved from

Public Relations Society of America. (2009). Crystallizing a response to a crisis (Product # 6BW-0911A05).

Securities and Exchange Commission. (2008, April 17). Current report: Imperial Sugar Company (Form 8-K). Washington, D.C.: Author.

Sugar refinery explosion (Collection of news reports). (n.d.) WTOC. Retrieved from

U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board. (2009, September). Investigation report: sugar dust explosion and fire (Report No. 2008-05-I-GA). Retrieved from